2002 Are our referencing errors undermining our scholarship and credibility? The case of expatriate failure rates. Journal of Organizational Behavior 23:127-148.
- (1) Reproduce the correct reference. This means get the details of the citation right.
- (2) Refer to the correct publication. For example, do not cite Binford (1972) for something that was in fact said in Binford (1965).
- (3) Do not use “empty” references. “Empty references do not contain any original data for the phenomenon under investigation, but strictly refer to other studies to substantiate their claim.”
- (4) Use reliable sources.
- (5) Use generalizable sources for generalized statements. In other words, don’t cite a single example as if it provided support for a more general phenomenon, and don’t cite a study of X artifacts at Y site as if it pertained to many more kinds of artifacts at many sites.
- (6) Do not misrepresent the content of the reference.
- (7) Make clear which statement references support. Don’t include a number of claims in one sentence, and then append a bunch of references.
- (8) Do not copy someone else’s references.
- (9) Do not cite out-of-date references. The point here is to avoid data and interpretations that have been discarded or superseded. Many archaeological data reports, of course, NEVER go out of date.
- (10) Do not be impressed by top academic journals.
- (11) Do not try to reconcile conflicting evidence.
- (12) Actively search for counter-evidence.
For a parallel study, published in New Scientist, see: “Scientists exposed as sloppy reporters”